A transit of Mercury across the Sun takes place when the planet Mercury passes directly transits between the Sun and a superior planet , becoming visible against and hence obscuring a small portion of the solar disk. During a transit, Mercury appears as a tiny black dot moving across the disk of the Sun. Transits of Mercury with respect to Earth are much more frequent than transits of Venus , with about 13 or 14 per century, in part because Mercury is closer to the Sun and orbits it more rapidly.
Transits of Mercury occur in May or November. The last four transits occurred on November 15, ; May 7, ; November 8, ; and May 9, The next will occur on November 11, , and then on November 13, A typical transit lasts several hours. On June 3, , the Mars rover Curiosity observed the planet Mercury transiting the Sun, marking the first time a planetary transit has been observed from a celestial body besides Earth.
More generally, transits can also occur for Venus  and were investigated in the context of searching for the hypothetical inner planet Vulcan. The most common observation to be made at a transit is to record the times when the disk of Mercury appears to be in contact with the limb of the Sun. Those contacts are traditionally referred to as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th contacts — with the 2nd and 3rd contacts occurring when the disk of Mercury is fully on the disk of the sun. As a general rule, 1st and 4th contacts cannot be accurately detected, while 2nd and 3rd contacts are readily visible within the constraints of the Black Drop effect , irradiation , atmospheric conditions, and the quality of the optics being used.
Observed contact times for transits between and are given in S Newcomb's analysis of transits of Mercury. Transits of Mercury can only occur when the Earth is aligned with a node of Mercury's orbit. Currently that alignment occurs within a few days of May 8 descending node and November 10 ascending node , with the angular diameter of Mercury being about 12" for May transits, and 10" for November transits.
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The average date for a transit increases over centuries as a result of the longitude of the nodes of Mercury's orbit increasing by about 1. Transits of Mercury occur on a regular basis. As explained in by Newcomb,  the interval between passages of Mercury through the ascending node of its orbit is From the ratio of these values, it can be easily shown that Mercury will make an almost integral number of revolutions about the Sun over intervals of 4, 6, 7, 13, 33, 46, and years. In Crommelin  noted that at these intervals, the successive paths of Mercury relative to the Sun are consistently displaced northwards or southwards.
He noted the displacements as:. Comparing these displacements with the solar diameter about Transits that occur 46 years apart can be grouped into a series.follow link
Transit of Mercury - Wikipedia
For November transits each series includes about 20 transits over years, with the path of Mercury across the Sun passing further north than for the previous transit. For May transits each series includes about 10 transits over years, with the path of Mercury across the Sun passing further south than for the previous transit. Some authors  have allocated a series number to transits on the basis of this year grouping. Similarly transits that occur years apart can be grouped into a series.
For November transits each series would include about transits over 30, years. For May transits each series would include about transits over 24, years. For both the May and November series, the path of Mercury across the Sun passes further north than for the previous transit. Series numbers have not been traditionally allocated on the basis of the year grouping. Sometimes Mercury appears to only graze the Sun during a transit. There are two possible scenarios:.
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The possibility that, at mid-transit, Mercury is seen to be fully on the solar disk from some parts of the world, and completely miss the Sun as seen from other parts of the world cannot occur. The first observation of a transit of Mercury was on November 7, by Pierre Gassendi. Johannes Kepler had however predicted the occurrence of transits of Mercury and Venus some time before that.
Gassendi unsuccessfully attempted to observe the transit of Venus just one month later, but due to inaccurate astronomical tables, he did not realize that it was not visible from most of Europe.
Mercury Retrograde Calendar for 12222 – When Mercury is in retrograde ?
A transit of Venus was not observed until by Jeremiah Horrocks. The table below includes all historical transits of Mercury from on:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Retrieved June 10, Astronomy Picture of the Day. Retrieved 25 August Forbes et al. Retrieved Page ". Page 84". Jupiter's current transit will last for days 4 hours in Scorpio started on 23 April and Ends on 5 November Saturn's current transit will last for days 2 years 2 months 28 days 18 hours in Sagittarius started on 26 October and Ends on 24 January Rahu's current transit will last for days 1 years 6 months 16 days 2 hours in Gemini started on 7 March and Ends on 23 September The effects of a transiting planet that have been delineated by the Ancient Sages on the basis of Moon sign would be experienced in different ways even by person born under the same Moon sign or the same Nakshatra and this difference arises because of the difference in the Lagna rising sign and the position of planets from the lagna.
Planet Retrograde dates Current Planetary positions. Sun enters Libra on October 18, , Sun enters Libra in approximate. Moon enters Pisces on October 11, , Moon enters Pisces in approximate.
Current Transits Upcoming Transits Timeline Sun's current transit will last for 30 days 12 hours in Virgo started on 17 September and Ends on 18 October Some general applications of transits on birth chart When Jupiter in his course if transit is in trikona meaning in same sign, in 5th sign from it or in 9th sign from it to the sign and navamsa occupied by the lord of house under consideration, the attainment of the good effects of the house can be expected.
When in the course of transit the lord of the Lagna and the 6th house gets into conjunction, the person will overcome his enemies, if the lord of the 6th house is weaker than the lord of the lagna. If the lord of the 6th house is stronger that the lagna lord then the results are going to be opposite in effect.
The success of the house under consideration can be predicted when the lord of the lagna gets into conjunction with the lord of that house house in course of their transits - provided that the lord of the house concerned is strong, or else the results can differ. Success of a house can be predicted under following circumstances of transits: When the lord of the lagna in transit is in trikona sign or navamsa occupied by the lord of the house.
When the lord of the lagna passes through that house in transit.